Process of Mutation
NATURAL SELECTION : Natural selection is the process whereby organisms better adapted to their environment tend to survive and produce more offspring.
EVOLUTION : Evolution is the change in the characteristics of a species over several generations. Or a change over time in simpler terms.
Variations of Mutations
Even The Smallest Action
How Does Mutation Work?
When a gene mutation occurs, the nucleotides are in the wrong order which means the coded instructions are wrong and faulty proteins are made or control switches are changed. A simple switch in a codon can cause a change in how future cells are produced. Different types of changes cause different outcome. Some categories of changes include Gene mutation and Chromosome mutation.
- Point Mutation is when one of the base changes.
- Substitution is when more than one base is replaced, usually a codon.
- Deletion is when one or more base is removed and the string of DNA shifts over to fix each other.
- Insertion is when a line of base is cut and a base or codon is added in the middle.
- Inversion is when a line of a chromosomes is reversed end to end.
Adaptation is the biological mechanism by which organisms adjust to new environments or to changes in their current environment. This is a result of a intentional mutation that helps a certain organism raise their chance of survival in a certain type of environment. Environment plays a significant role in muatation and the process of adaption. A simple change in the habitat of a creature can cause an animal to behave in different ways. A sudden change that completely changes how it lives can cause them to die or even go extinct. A gradual change has a chance to create a mutation and causing the organism to adapt to the environment.
Gene flow is when genetic material is transfered from one population to another. If the rate of gene flow is high enough, then two populations will have equivalent allele frequencies and therefore can be considered a single effective population. This is when one type of species is compatible with another and they mix into one. An example of this ocuring is when a bee carries Pollen from one flower to another. This can cause floral offspring to look different.